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Additives - Substances added to food, such as: •Potassium chloride •Choline chloride •Calcium chloride •Vitamins as pre-mix •Vitamin E •Vitamin C •Trace minerals as pre-mix •DL-methionine •L-lysine •Lecithin •Biotin •Taurine •Glucosamine amp; chondroitin as pre-mix •Gelatin •Yucca schidigera extract
Barley - Grains of Hordeum vulgare L. Wholesome grains, which promote gastro-intestinal health.
Beta-Carotene - ß-Carotene is a provitamin A and can be used by dogs to synthesize vitamin A by splitting in two parts.
Biotin - Important element of numerous enzymes. Biotin is involved in the metabolisation of carbohydrate-, fat-, and protein and thus their conversion to energy. It is also important for the synthesis of keratin, the substance of skin epithelium, hair and claws (nails).
Calcium - Important for the building of skeleton and teeth, for the regulation of different metabolic processes, like blood clotting and contraction of the muscles.
Calcium carbonate - Product that consist of finely ground and sieved limestone. Calcium carbonate is used as a source of calcium and to optimize the ratio between calcium and phosphorus.
Calcium chloride - The product is a granular white crystalline compound of calcium salts, which can be used as a source of calcium. Calcium chloride, as an urine acidifier, may be useful in the prevention of struvite bladderstones.
Canola oil - Oil derived from canola (rapeseed), which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Carbohydrates - Mainly starch, which is a supplier of fast releasable energy. Carbohydrates can be stored in the body in the form of fat.
Carrot powder - Carrots, which have been peeled, cleaned by multiple washing, cut, blanched, dried, ground and then sieved. Carrots consist of pectine, sugar and high amounts of ß-carotene that dogs (not cats) can convert to vitamin A.
Cereals - All types of cereal, regardless of their presentation, or products made from the starchy endosperm.
Chicken fat - An animal fat, which is rich in linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acids.
Chloride - Important for the regulation of osmotic pressure in extracellular spaces (spaces outside the cells), hence chloride is important for the water balance in the organism. In addition of chloride is important for the acid-base-balance and also for the neuromuscular stimulus transmission (transfer of stimulus from the nerve to the muscle).
Choline - Choline can be synthesized in the organism. Important for the building of cell membrane and the production of myelin (greasy substance, from what the marrow sheath exists), methionine metabolism and metabolism of folic acid. Choline is also an element of neurotransmitter acetylcholine (chemical substance, which takes care of the impulse transmission towards muscle fibre).
Choline chloride - Choline chloride is used to optimize the choline content.
Cobalt - Cobalt can be found as a central atom in vitamin B12 and is essential for the synthesis of vitamin B12.
Copper - Element of specific enzyme systems, like the building of pigment, iron transport and building of blood cells, cellular energy metabolism or components of connective tissue (elastin and collagen).
Corn - Grains of Zea mays L. Wholesome grains, which promote gastro-intestinal health.
Crude ash - Crude ash is the inorganic part of the food and does mainly contain the minerals and trace elements. It is also called "incinerated residue" since the amount of ash is determined in laboratories by incinerating (burning) the food. What remains is the crude ash fraction. This represents the mineral content of the food. High-quality dry pet foods generally contain between 5% and 8,5% ash.
Crude fat - Fats and oils are fuels. They are the most efficient suppliers of energy for the body and fulfil the need for essential fatty acids which interfere with all kind of body processes.
Crude fibre - Stimulates an optimal working digestion and is also a nutrient for intestinal bacteria. Moderately fermentable fibre sources provide SCFA's (short chain fatty acids) which "feed" the cells lining the large intestine, hence enhancing it's efficiency.
Crude protein - Important for the building of tissue and organs especially during growth, reproduction or during milk secretion.
Cultured yeast - Yeasts, Saccharomyces cervisia, which have been cultivated, killed and dried. Yeasts are rich in protein and vitamins B.
Derivatives of vegetable origin - Derivatives resulting from the treatment of vegetable products in particular cereals, vegetables, legumes and oil seeds. To the group of derivatives of vegetable origin belong: •Sugar beet pulp •Pea Fibre •Tomato pulp
Dicalciumphosphate - An anorganic crystalline feed grade dicalciumphosphate, produced by means of certain chemical reaction. The production process ensures an end product with good phosphorus digestibility. Dicalciumphosphate is used to optimize the ration between calcium and phosphorus.
DL-methionine - A synthetic source of methionine and can be used as a urine acidifier in the prevention of struvite uroliths (bladderstones).
Eggs and egg derivatives - All egg products fresh or preserved by appropriate treatment, and derivatives from the processing thereof. To the group of eggs and egg derivatives belong: • Whole dried eggs
Fish and fish derivatives - Fish or parts of fish, fresh or preserved by appropriate treatment, and derivatives from the processing thereof. To the group of Fish and fish derivatives belong: •Fish meal, high in protein
Fish meal, high in protein - Fish meal is highly digestible, and constitutes an important source of protein and minerals, like calcium, phosphorus and sodium. The content of poly unsaturated fatty acids is high. It is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids.
Flaxseed - Seeds of Linum usitatissimum L., which are high in omega-3 fatty acids, especially a-linolenic acid. This has beneficial effects on skin and hair coat.
Folic acid (Vitamin B4) - Indispensable for the transfer of methyl groups in intermediate metabolisms, like carbohydrate metabolism and the building of proteins. Folic acid is also essential for cell forming and tissue building.
Gelatin - Addition of gelatin to convential foods of dogs may have an improving effect on the locomotion system.
Glucosamine & Chondroitin - Overfeeding in combination with a lack of physical exercise, can result in an increased energy intake and may lead to obesity of the dog. Obese dogs will have more stress on their joints, which may induce a decline of the condition of the joint cartilage. Also, large breed dogs and older dogs are more prone to joint problems. Glucosamine and chondroitin may have a positive effect on the joint cartilage protection and brings building blocks for the cartilage. Large breed dogs, older dogs and obese dogs may benefit from these nutraceuticals as they assist in the maintenance of healthy joint cartilage.
Inositol - Also part of the B vitamin complex and is closely associated with choline. Inositol, as phosphatidylinositol, has its primary function in cell membrane structure and integrity. Other functions of phosphatidylinositol are somewhat obscure. With choline, it may help in brain cell nutrition. Inositol is especially important for the cells of the bone marrow, eye tissue and intestines. And it may play a role in hair growth.
Iodine - Element of thyroid hormone and important for an optimal functioning of the thyroid gland.
Iron - Central element of substances which are involved in oxygen transfer (hemoglobin, myoglobin) and of enzymes, which regulates the oxygen transfer in the cells.
L-lysine - A synthetic source of lysine.
Lecithin - Lecithin is a phospholipid and an important substance of cell membranes in the body. Just like other phospholipids, lecithin is not only able to solve in water, but also in fat. Phospholipids are especially important, because they can transport fat-soluble substances through the body cells. In addition, lecithin plays a role in the production of choline, which plays an important role in the body, especially in the brain.
Lysine - Essential amino acid, which is used to satisfy the animal's lysine requirements. Lysine is a building block of protein and plays an important role in the metabolism of the animal.
Magnesium - Important for the building of skeleton and teeth and for the function of nerves and muscles. In addition, magnesium is an element of numerous enzymes and is indispensable for carbohydrate-, fat- and protein metabolism.
Manganese - Indispensable for the function of various enzymes. Important for growth, bone-growth, reproduction and energy supply. Messages about spontaneous shortage of manganese in the dog are till now unknown.
Meat and animal derivatives - All the fleshy parts of slaughtered warm-blooded land animals fresh or preserved by appropriate treatment, and all products and derivatives of the processing of the carcass or parts of the carcass of such animals. To the group of meat and animal derivatives belong: •Chicken meal •Poultry meal, high fat •Natural flavors •Lamb meal
Metabolisable energy - Energy content of the feed, which can be used by the dog.
Methionine - Essential sulphur-containing amino acid, which is the most limiting amino acid. Methionine is added to satisfy the animal's methionine requirement. Methionine is a building block of protein and plays a role in the metabolism of the animal. In addition, methionine is also used to lower the pH-value of the urine and may prevent the formation of struvite uroliths.
Minerals - All inorganic substances suitable for animal feed. To the group of minerals belong: •Dicalciumphophate •Calcium carbonate •Salt (sodium chloride)
Moisture - Important for dissolving feed components in the intestinal tract, for transport of nutrients from the intestinal tract via the blood stream to various tissues, for cell metabolism, but also for the excretion of matters with the urine via the kidneys and the regulation of body temperature.
Natural flavors - Hydrolyzed animal protein, which is used to optimize the palatability of the kibbles and promotes the feed (nutrient) intake of the dog or cat in a natural way.
Niacin (Vitamin B7) - Important for the metabolisms of protein, fat and carbohydrates, but also important for skin, digestion and mucous membrane (a shortage of niacin will result in "Black Tongue").
Oats - Grains of Avena sativa L. and other kinds of cultivated oats. Oats have a high oil content (and unsaturated fatty acids), are highly palatable and digestible.
Oils and fats - All animal and vegetable oils and fats. To the group of oils and fats belong: •Chicken fat •Poultry fat •Canola oil •Primrose oil •Salmon oil
Omega-3 & 6 - Literature suggest that adding omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may have a positive contribution to healthy skin and hair coat, healthy immune function, regulation of the inflammation process, and prenatal development. The main omega-3 fatty acids are eicosapentanoic (EPA) and docosahexanoic (DHA) and are found in crustaceae (shellfish), fatty fish and certain vegetable oils (flaxseed, primrose black current, spirulina). Omega-3 fatty acids are important for a normal brain development, communication ability and eyesight. In addition omega-3 fatty acids seem to suppress the inflammatory processes and blood clotting. Omega-6 fatty acids, such as linoleic and arachidonic acid, and found in for example chicken fat, may contribute to a normal cell function and tend to promote the inflammatory process. The optimal balance between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in a diet should be between 5-10/1.
Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B3) - As a substance of coenzyme A pantothenic acid is involved in the protein-, fat- and carbohydrate metabolism. Also stimulates the cell splitting and proliferation.
Pea fibre - Product of the production of flour from peas, Pisum spp., which mainly consist of pea hulls or pea fibre. Pea fibre is an all natural source of fibre.
Phosphorus - Important for the building of skeleton and teeth. In addition, phosphorus has a central function in activating various substrates which act in metabolic processes which produce energy for the body.
Potassium - Important for the building of skeleton and teeth. In addition, phosphorus has a central function in activating various substrates which act in metabolic processes which produce energy for the body.
Potassium chloride - The product is a crystalline powder of potassium chloride, which is used to optimize the potassium and chloride content.
Poultry fat - An animal fat, which is rich in linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid.
Poultry meal, high fat - An animal fat, which is rich in linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid.
Primrose oil - Oil derived from primrose, which is rich in omega-6 fatty acids.
Rice, broken - By-product from the production of polished or glazed rice, Oryza sativa, and contains small or broken grains. Excellent source of carbohydrates and is easily digested. Rice is often considered to be "hypo allergenic".
Salmon oil - Oil derived from salmon, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids.
Salt (sodium chloride) - Sodium chloride is used as a source of sodium and chloride.
Seeds - All types of seeds as such or roughly crushed. To the group of seeds belong: •Flaxseed
Selenium - Important element for inactivating detrimental free radicals. Together with vitamin E indispensable for the maintenance of cell membranes.
Sodium - Important for the regulation of osmotic pressure in extracellular spaces (spaces outside the cells), hence sodium is important for the water balance in the organism. In addition, sodium is important for the acid-base balance and also for the neuromuscular stimulus transmission (transfer of stimulus from the nerve to the muscle).
Sugar beet pulp - Product of sugar winning from sugar beets, Beta vulgaris. Sugar beet pulp is one of the best fibre sources because it is moderately fermentable by bacteria in the large intestine, producing Short Chain Fatty Acids that are beneficial for the well functioning of the large intestine.
Taurine - Taurine is a beta amino acid required by cats but not by dogs. There are two reasons for this. First, the liver of the cat has a limited ability to produce taurine, as the rate-limiting enzymes required for converting methionine and cysteine to taurine are only minimally active in the feline liver. Second, cats lose taurine in the secretion of bile acids (whereas other mammals also use glycine in the conjugation and secretion of bile acids, freeing up taurine for other uses). Taurine is found in the nervous system (including retina) and muscles (especially heart). Taurine is thought to help regulate the heartbeat, maintain cell membranes, and affect the release of neurotransmitters in the brain. Taurine may also protect the heart cells from calcium overload and assists in calcium uptake by the heart cells during periods of hypoxia (reduced oxygen levels). Deficiency results in dilated cardio-myopathy, degeneration of the retina and congenital malformation of kittens.
Tomato pulp - Product of winning of tomato juice by means of pressing tomatoes, Solanum Lycopersicum Karst. Tomato pulp is an all natural source of fibre.
Trace minerals as pre-mix - Essential trace minerals partly chelated (bound on protein) to promote a better absorption. The premix contains zinc oxide, zinc proteinate, iron sulphate, iron proteinate, cupric sulphate, cupric proteinate, manganese oxid, manganese proteinate, calciumiodate, sodiumselenite, which are the main sources of zinc, iron, copper, manganese, iodide and selenium.
Vegetable protein extracts - All products of vegetable origin in which the protein has been concentrated by an adequate process to contain at least 50% protein, as related to the dry matter, and which may be restructured or textured. To the group of vegetable protein extracts belong: •Carrot powder
Vitamin A - Important for protein synthesis, bone-growth, eyesight, building and protection of skin and mucous membrane and for the defense of infections.
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) - Important for the central nervous system, skeleton- and heart muscles, regulates the carbohydrate metabolism and maintenance of body weight.
Vitamin B12 - Important for cell maintenance, growth and building of blood cells.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) - Important substance of flavoenzymes involved in hydrogen transport in aerobic respiration. In addition, vitamin B2 is important for the fat- and protein metabolism.
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) - Important for the metabolisms of amino acids and proteins.
Vitamin C - Important for the building of collagen in connective tissue and steroid hormones. In addition, vitamin C stimulates the immune system. Vitamin C is non essential for the dog, because in normal situations vitamin C is synthesized in the liver and kidneys in sufficient amounts. In general, supplementation of vitamin C with the feed is not necessary.
Vitamin D3 - Important for the stimulation of calcium- and phosphorus absorption in the intestine. Vitamin D3 also has an influence on the bone building.
Vitamin E - Natural antioxidant. Vitamin E protects the cells against oxidation and the destructive effect of free radicals.
Vitamin K3 - Necessary for blood clotting and for the synthesis of certain proteins.
Vitamins as pre-mix - Vitamins, which are essential for the dog and cat. The premixes contains vitamin A, vitamin D3, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin B1 (thiamin), vitamin B2 (riboflavin), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), Biotin, vitamin B12, niacin, pantothenic acid, folic acid, ß-carotene, inositol.
Wheat - Grains of Triticum aestivum and other kinds of cultivated wheat. Wholesome grains, which promotes gastro-intestinal health.
Whole dried eggs - Homogenous, constant blend of fresh, whole eggs, which are carefully broken, rinsed and dried. Eggs are an excellent and highly digestible source of protein and fat.
Yeasts - All yeasts, the cells of which have been killed and dried. To the group of yeasts belong: •Cultured yeast
Yucca shidigera extract - A plant extract, which may reduce stool odour.
Zinc - Important for the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and nucleic acids, cell growth and cell proliferation, wound healing and important for the health of skin and fur.